WHAT IS AN AROMATHERAPY?


Medical News Today defines Aromatherapy as “Aromatherapy, or essential oil therapy refers to a range of traditional, alternative, or complementary therapies that use essential oils and other aromatic plant compounds.”

Similarly, the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA) defines aromatherapy as “the therapeutic application or the medicinal use of aromatic substances (essential oils) for holistic healing.”Ancient History of Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy is a branch of alternative medicine that uses specific “aromas” from essential oils that have curative effects.  The healing art of aromatherapy traces back to 4,000-5,000 BC when the Egyptians, Greeks, Hebrews, Romans, and Persians burned herbs and flowers for medicinal purposes.  Today, many are rediscovering those ancient healing practices as a path back to divine health.

HISTORY OF ESSENTIAL OILS


Essential oils have a long history that crosses multiple civilizations for thousands of years. Many different cultures have used these healing plant oils for more than 5,000 years for a variety of health conditions. They are often used for relaxation, beauty care, home cleaning, and most often used as natural medicine. Some of the oldest cultures on this earth saw the value in using essential oils for medicinal treatments and wellness properties.

The healing art of aromatherapy traces back to 4,000-5,000 BC when the Egyptians, Greeks, Hebrews,HIstory of Essential Oils Romans, and Persians burned herbs and flowers for medicinal purposes (1).  It is difficult to pinpoint where the practice originated. Oils have been used by the Jews, Chinese, Indians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans as cosmetics and perfumes, medicinal purposes (2). The most effective use of essential oils for health is the combating of infectious illness.

Some cultures even used essential oils in spiritual rituals. This type of practice is still in the evidence, for example in the East, sprigs of juniper are burnt in Tibetan temples as a form of purification. In the West, Frankincense is used during the Roman Catholic mass.

 

The Egyptians

The use of essential oils has a history that reaches back as far as 4,500 BC in Egypt. Egyptians chose to take Ancient Egyptians Use Essential Oils for Healing,, Aromatherapy and Cosmetic Purposes.advantage of the unique benefits of using plants and herbs for medicinal, cosmetic, and aroma purposes. Aromatic gums and oils such as cedar and myrrh were employed in the embalming process (3).

For instance, Aromatic materials were widespread in Pharaonic Egypt as fragrance materials to embalm corpses. The Egyptians are infamous for their use of essential oils for healing, aromatherapy, and cosmetic purposes. For example, plants, oils, and pastes were commonly used as ointments, suppositories, and medicines.

Ancient Egyptians often used geranium to help beautify the skin. Geranium hydrosol is a product obtained at the same time the essential oil of geranium is extracted. It has a sweet floral and fruity scent. It not only smells but also has many benefits for health and beauty. It is anticoagulant, antiviral, anti-bacterial, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, and antidepressant (4).

Ancient Egyptians used dill for its soothing effects. The Egyptian priests used aromatics such as Cedarwood, Sandalwood, and Aloes in their embalming practices and for mummification. Frankincense was used by the ancient Egyptians for perfumes and salves to soothe the skin. Indian sandalwood has many benefits for the skin.

Cosmetic

Many citizens used body oil every day to moisturize and shield the skin from the damaging rays of the sun. These essential oils were natural skin rejuvenates. They helped to protect skin from burns and early wrinkles.

Hygiene Practices

Egyptians held cleanliness and personal hygiene in high standards. Egyptians used essential oils not only to protect their skin or for their aromatic properties, but they used these oils to prevent disease.

Mummification

Ancient Egyptian culture is perhaps most noted for their use of these scented oils in their mummification practices. Egyptians used these aromatic plants to embalm the bodies of the deceased and prepare them for burial.

Early embalmers chose to use a variety of essential oils including cedar, juniper oil, myrrh, frankincense, and cinnamon were all used to prepare the bodies of Egypt’s elite.

 

The Chinese

Essential oil use amongst the Chinese is recorded as having taken place as early as 2,697, during the reign of Yello Emperor creared uses for aromatic oils.Huang Ti (5). The “Yellow Emperor” created several uses for the aromatic oils that practitioners of Eastern medicine continue to leverage (6).  Shen Nung, a Chinese practitioner, wrote a herbal book that featured information about more than 400 plants. This book is amongst the oldest surviving medical books from an ancient civilization.

Today, China is one of the largest producers of essential oils in the world (6a). Several aromatics such as opium and ginger apart from their therapeutic applications are known to have been used for religious purposes.

 

The Indian

Indians adopted the use of aromatic oils 3,000 years ago (7).  According to the Vedas literature, more than ndia adopted the use of aromatic oils 3,000 years ago700 different substances were used for medicines an essential oils. Information about ginger, sandalwood, and cinnamon to name a few received high praise.

Recipes for healing bath preparation using cinnamon, cardamom, coriander, ginger, and myrrh can be found in the Rig Veda in India at least 3,000 years ago. Aromatic plants and oils have been a major part of the Indian Ayurveda medical practice for the past 3,000 years (8).

Vedic literature lists such aromatic oils as sandalwood, ginger, myrrh, and cinnamon as effective oils for healing. The use of medicinal oils was integral during the breakout of the Bubonic Plague, in which they replaced unsuccessful antibiotics. The use of essential oils not only addressed a medical need but also was also important in the philosophical and spiritual perspective of Ayurvedic medicine.

 

The Greeks

Greeks were the first to begin using essential oils on the European continent. Hippocrates, the “Father of Greeks were the first to begin using essential oils on the European continentMedicine” who gained his knowledge from India, included more than 300 plants as a component of aromatic oils in his treatment of Roman soldiers as well as during the plague in Athens (9). The Greeks used oils such as lavender in their perfume but also as a bathing and cooking agent.

Greek physician Dioscorides (146 BCE) drew up a list of 500 plants in his De Materia Medica which serve as the basis for all the manuals of medicine created in the middle ages. The “Father of Pharmacology” and founder of pharmacy as a science (10).  He was also a botanist and traveled all around the world collecting 600 herbs and plants that he used for medicinal purposes. Another Greek physician, Megallus formulated an aromatic remedy called Megalleon made from Cinnamon, Myrrh, and charred Frankincense resins soaked in Balanos oil, which gained notoriety for its curative benefits as an anti-inflammatory and for healing wounds.

Anti-infective plants were also regularly ingested with food. For example, Nicotiana benthamiana species. Nicotiana benthamiana is a close relative of tobacco and species of Nicotiana indigenous to Australia.

Ancient Greeks used thyme for bathing, while the Egyptians used it as part of the embalming process. Thyme is a Mediterranean herb with dietary, medicinal, and ornamental uses. The flowers, leaves, and oil of thyme have been used to treat a range of symptoms.

Ancient Greece used Helichrysum for skin benefits. Helichrysum used for respiratory complaints such as asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough, headaches, migraines, liver ailments, and skin disease (11). Helichrysum oil has superb regenerating qualities and can assist in the healing of scars, acne, dermatitis, stretch marks, boils, abscesses. It has excellent anti-aging properties and useful for dry and sensitive skin.

Healing Begins With An Aromatic Bath & Daily Massage – Hippocrates

Rome

The Romans and Egyptians frequently used lavender for bathing, relaxation, and as a perfume. They used Romans and Egyptians frequently used lavender for bathing, relaxation and as a perfumethree kinds of perfumes such as ladysmata, scented oil, and powder perfumes to fragrance their hair, bodies, clothes, and beds (12).

Fragrance materials play a much more important in life than often realized. Incense is burnt in religious ceremonies all over the world. Fragrance materials play a dual role in body care products. Many such products e.g. aftershaves and antiperspirants are actually perfumery products such as creams, shampoos, deodorants have essential oils added to them to make their uses more pleasant.

Australia

History records that the Aborigines of the outback used Melaleuca Tea Tree oil for healing and rightfully so, as Melaleuca tree leaves were used by Australian Aborigines for healing purposes.it is the best known for being a powerful immune stimulant against infectious organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses (13). They would crush the leaves and apply them directly to the skin for a cooling effect.

 

AROMATHERAPY & ESSENTIAL OILS SCIENCE TODAY


The truth regarding the healing properties of essential oils has long been neglected and misunderstood by most in Eastern and Western society. While most Aromatherapists in global still relegate essential oils to the support of the psyche studies continue to uphold the antibacterial and antiviral effects of essential oils.

True Medical and Clinical Aromatherapists around the globe are saying, “The most effective use of essential oils for health is the combating of infectious illness.”

The healing purpose is called aromatherapy, which is a holistic treatment seeking to improve physical, mental, and emotional health,  In aromatic plants, there are typically about 1% of volatile organic compounds in the dry material, but their percentage varies considerably, ranging from close to zero to 17% (clove buds) or more than 70% in dried resins.

 

 Read more for Aromatherapy and Essential Oils for Beginner’s Guide.

 

Within each plant’s oil is the complex makeup of 200-800 chemical constituents. Because of the variability and unpredictability of these constituents, pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses are unable to build up a resistance in their efforts of mutation against essential oils.

Synthetic drugs that are made by isolating one or two constituents are no match for bacteria or viruses which can easily adapt and mutate, rendering a drug useless. There are simply too many constituents within an essential oil for a virus to adapt to.

Recent studies in medical research now confirm essential oils’ therapeutic and medicinal qualities as being: anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-venomous, anti-depressive, anti-neuralgic, stimulant, nervine, digestive and diuretic.

All of the major physical systems of the body including the circulatory, lymphatic, eliminative, reproductive, endocrine, muscular, and skeletal have been responsive to aromatherapy in a positive manner.

In addition, many essential oils prove to be more effective than antibiotics and possess the intelligence to leave the beneficial bacteria untouched. Chemist and Aromatherapy Practitioner, Dr. Kurt Schnaubelt states, essential oils have a 95% success potential against infections to be proven more effective than antibiotics and possess the intelligence to leave the beneficial bacterial untouched.

Essential oils can protect us from microbes in many different ways, from keeping the space around us naturally microbe-free to readying our immune system for defense, to destroying the microbes once they’ve entered our bodies.

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Simply by diffusing essential oils into the atmosphere, the oils eliminate microbes in the air, thus reducing the concentration of live pathogens you may inhale or touch at any time lessening the load on your immune system.

Second, most essential oils, especially the strong antimicrobial ones, have an uplifting effect on the psyche and a sharpening effect on the mind.

Finally, essential oils can fortify your own immune system to prevent you from catching an illness in the first place with some studies that have shown mammalian cells having increased resistance to microbial invaders after exposure to essential oils.

While essential oils’ powerful weapon of antimicrobial compounds equips us against viral pathogens that attempt to invade the body, most aromatherapists agree essential oils are not “wonder drugs.” Conventional medicine has its place and should certainly be employed when it will provide the best results. Alternative medicine, such as aromatherapy offers a suitable resolution in relation to its therapeutic value and can be effective if used sensibly and with sound judgment.

 

SO, WHAT’S EXACTLY IS ESSENTIAL OIL?


Essential oils are fragrant, vital fluid distilled from flowers, shrubs, leaves, trees, roots, and seeds.  Because they are necessary for the life of the plant and play a vital role in the biological processes of the vegetation, these substances are called “essential” because they carry the life-blood, intelligence, and vibrational energy that endow them with the healing power to sustain their own life and help the people who use them.

Essential oils are highly concentrated oils that have a strong aroma.  By concentrating the oils of these plants, you are literally separating the most powerful healing compounds of a plant into a single oil.  Essential oils are extremely concentrated and contained in the tiny droplets of aromatic substances.

For instance, to get one single 10 ml bottle of Rose Touch essential oil, it takes 1,400 roses. 1 ton of petals to produce 300g of Rose oil.  Rose described as the “hormone” or “life-blood” of a plant due to its highly concentrated and essential nature.

Essential oils are composed of very small molecules that can penetrate your cells.  The essential oil compounds can even cross the blood-brain barrier.  They differ from fatty oils like vegetables or nuts that come from large molecules because they cannot penetrate your cells, so they are not therapeutic in the same manner.  One drop can have powerful health benefits.

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PLANTS PART YIELDING ESSENTIAL OILS


Plant Parts to Produce essential oilsIn some cases, one plant may provide multiple oils such as the Orange tree. From its leaves and twigs, the oil of Petitgrain is extracted, while Sweet Orange essential oil comes from the rind of its fruit and Neroli, a rich floral essence is extracted from its flower blossoms.

Amazingly, all three essential oils, though they come from the same plant are all unique with differences in odor and therapeutic properties.

All essential oils have their own unique medicinal properties, characteristics, and therapeutic benefits which will differ depending on the soil, climate, and altitude of the countries where the plants were grown.

According to Rene-Maurice Gattefosse, microbiological research shows that a number of essential oils are active strains of Clostridium perfringens including winter savory (Satureja Montana), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), lemon tea tree (Leptospermum petersonii) and tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) are susceptible to Clostridium perfringerns related disease.

Plant substances that have been extracted into essential oils are used in aromatherapy to promote well-being and good health. While the term aromatherapy can seem ambiguous, “scent” is only one aspect of aromatherapy as you will discover many more dramatic benefits for healing the body, mind, and spirit.

 

ESSENTIAL OILS ARE FOUND IN PLANTS & PLANT PARTS


Hundreds of thousands of different plants cover the planet earth, playing a vital role in animal and human life by producing oxygen, providing food, regulating water and creating habitats. There is a wide variety of plant types, species, families, and each plant has characteristics that make it useful for certain purposes.

Within the seeds, bark, stems, flowers, roots, wood, needles, and fruit of these diverse plants, a variety of essential oils can be found. While the idea of extracting essential oils from plant parts and using them for things like cooking, health, and aromatherapy might be foreign to some, these practices have actually been around for thousands of years.

 

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Essential Oils Come Tree Sap and Gum Resin

  • FrankincenseFrankincense
  • Myrrh
  • Benzoin

Essential Oils come from Gum Resin

  • Myrrh
  • Frankincense

LemomEssential Oils Come from Grasses

  • Lemongrass

Essential Oils come from Leaves

  • EucalyptusEucalyptus
  • Geranium
  • Lemon Eucalyptus
  • Lemongrass
  • Marjoram
  • Neroli
  • RosemaryRosemary
  • Tea Tree
  • Wintergreen

Essential Oils come from Flowers

  • ChamomileChamomile
  • Helichrysum
  • Neroli
  • Rose
  • Ylang Ylang
  • Jasmine

Clary SageEssential Oils come from Leaves and Flowering

  • Thyme
  • Blue Tansy
  • Melissa
  • Oregano
  • MarjoramPatchouli
  • Clary Sage
  • Marjoram

Essential Oils come from Leaves and TwigsTea Tree

  • Eucalyptus
  • Tea Tree

Essential Oils come from Flowering TopsYarrow

  • Lavender
  • Rosemary
  • Yarrow

Essential Oils come from Leaves, Flowering, GeraniumTops, and Stalks

  • Basil
  • Chamomile
  • Clary Sage
  • BasilGeranium
  • Marjoram
  • Thyme

 

Essential Oils Come from Fruit (Rind, BergamotPeels) 

  • Bergamot
  • Wild Orange
  • Lemon
  • Lime

Essential Oils come from Fruit’s RindLemon

  • Bergamot
  • Grapefruit
  • Lime
  • Lemon
  • GrapefruitMandarin
  • Wild Orange
  • Tangerine

Essential Oils Come Roots  Ginger

  • Ginger
  • Spikenard
  • Vetiver

PeppermintEssential Oils come from Whole Plants 

  • Dill
  • Peppermint
  • Spearmint

Essential Oils come from Leaves, Flowers and StemsThyme

  • Clary Sage
  • Summer Savory
  • Palmarosa
  • Peppermint
  • Thyme

ParsleyEssential Oils come from Leaves and Stems 

  • Spearmint
  • Parsley

Essential Oils come from NeedlesDouglas Fir

  • Black Spruce
  • Douglas Fir
  • Siberian Fir
  • White Fir

Black SpruceEssential Oils come from Needles & Twigs

  • Black Spruce
  • Douglas Fir
  • White Fir

CardamomEssential Oils come from Seeds

  • Cardamom
  • Nutmeg
  • Celery Seeds
  • Coriander
  • CorianderCarrot Seeds
  • Fennel

Essential Oils come from BarkCassia

  • Cassia
  • Cedarwood
  • Cinnamon

Essential Oils come from WoodSandalwood

  • Sandalwood
  • Rosewood

Essential Oils come from Stems & BudsClove

  • Clove

Essential Oils come from Berries

  • Black Pepper

CypressEssential Oils come from Branches

  • Cypress

Essential Oils come from Berries and Branches

  • Juniper BerryJuniper Berry

Essential Oils come from Leaves, Twigs, and Branches

  • PetitgrainPetitgrain

 

 

We know much more today about the benefits and uses of plant parts and essential oils thanks to technology and research. In the past, the people of these ancient civilizations had the right idea. These are countless ways to use plants due to the wide assortment of plant types and species available.

 

BENEFITS & USES OF AROMATHERAPY


There is nothing more amazing than the scent of essential oils, especially the favorites, like Peppermint, Tea Tree, Lavender, Chamomile, Eucalyptus, Rose and  Lemon.

Aromatherapy has many positive effects on your mind, body, and spirit. Aromatherapy is a healing practice that affects the mind and body through the use of essential oil aromas.

Aromatherapy’s roots can be traced back more than 3,500 years. The Egyptians used to burn herbs, woods, and spices for the aroma to honor their Gods. The belief was that the smoke could transfer their prayers to the heavens where those gods lived.

Over time, the use of aromatics evolved involved into more of a healing and medicinal and even mental health purpose. There are reports that the Egyptians burned plants and aromatic herbs to help drive away from the evil spirits that plagued the physically and mentally ill.

Many people turn to aromatherapy with the hope of creating a calm environment, introducing balance, clearing their mind, and promoting relaxation as it offers these benefits:

  • Improves your sleep experience
  • Generates feelings of relaxation
  • Manages stress anxiety, and depression
  • Provides pain relief
  • Treats the side effects of cancer treatment
  • Reduces confusion in dementia sufferers

The essential oils in aromatherapy treatments encourage relaxation as the aromatic scents of the oil stimulate the hypothalamus and the parasympathetic nervous system. The body in turn relaxes, and fatigue melts away.

 

Aromatherapy is not limited to the inhalation of oils but rather can support our bodies via three methods: external, topical, and internal.

External Aromatherapy

External aromatherapy is just what it implies. It is the release of a fragrant oil scent into the air.

inhalationInhalation

These fabulous scents help to neutralize the air and trigger feelings of relaxation, improve your alertness, and improve your overall mental state of wellbeing.  Inhalation may take place through a variety of techniques including steam, scent pot, or diffuser.

Aromatherapy Massage

Essential oils may be used or the purposes of an aromatic massage. During an aromatherapy massage, our Aromatherapy Massagebodies absorb the essential oil while the scent of the oil creates a calm environment. This practice not only creates a relaxing atmosphere, but it stimulates the body to respond in kind. The blood circulation in our body increases, boosting the flow of oxygen in our bodies.

Aside from relaxation, aromatic massages:

  • Deliver pain relief
  • Promote mental health well-being
  • Lowers blood pressure
  • Helps to rid the body of toxins
  • Relieves stress

Ideally, you will want to locate a certified masseuse to perform your massage. Although you might have a significant other at home willing to deliver your message, a qualified masseuse can adequately find the proper pressure points and manipulate your muscles without causing too much damage to your bones or joints.

Massage Oil DIY

Base Oil Essential Oil Drops
1 teaspoon/5 ml 2-3
1 tablespoon/15 ml 6-7
1 oz/25 ml 12-13
2 oz/50 ml 25
3.5 oz/100 ml 50

Store your massage solution in a dark bottle and remember to keep your application light.

Essential oils are the foundation of aromatherapy. This practice leverages the natural aromas of plants and holistically uses them to benefit the whole person.

Eѕѕеntiаl оilѕ саn bе inhaled or аррliеd tо thе ѕkin for a mуriаd оf рѕусhоlоgiсаl аѕ wеll аѕ рhуѕiсаl hеаlth bеnеfitѕ. Whеn applied tорiсаllу, a few drорѕ оf essential oil аrе аddеd tо a саrriеr oil in order tо ѕаfеlу dеlivеr the еѕѕеntiаl оilѕ рrореrtiеѕ tо thе skin. Eѕѕеntiаl oils can аlѕо bе mixеd with water, where thе wаtеr will act аѕ the “base” оr carrier in thаt instance, аѕ is thе саѕе with аrоmаthеrару bаthѕ аnd fооt ѕоаkѕ.

Eѕѕеntiаl оilѕ саn bе inhaled or аррliеd tо thе ѕkin for a mуriаd оf рѕусhоlоgiсаl аѕ wеll аѕ рhуѕiсаl hеаlth bеnеfitѕ. Whеn applied tорiсаllу, a few drорѕ оf essential oil аrе аddеd tо a саrriеr oil in order tо ѕаfеlу dеlivеr the еѕѕеntiаl оilѕ рrореrtiеѕ tо thе skin. Eѕѕеntiаl oils can аlѕо bе mixеd with water, where thе wаtеr will act аѕ the “base” оr carrier in thаt instance, аѕ is thе саѕе with аrоmаthеrару bаthѕ аnd fооt ѕоаkѕ.

 

USE AROMATHERAPY FOR STRESS RELIEF


Aromatherapy and Stress

Aromatherapy continues to be a staple in natural holistic practices. Spas all over the world are dedicated to delivering a compelling service and experience to people from various backgrounds that are in search of a natural escape or in search of a natural cure to stress.

There are many forms of stress in our lives. Although the good stress may serve to motivate us to perform at our highest levels, over time it can take a mental and physical toll on our lives. Essential oils can be useful in not only replenishing our energy stores but ridding us of unwanted stress.

In just one hour, men and women can experience a bath, massage, or wrap suited to meet their needs. There are even spa resorts that are dedicated to fulfilling the practice of ancient traditions.

Aromatherapy is also easy to implement at home, with the use of diffusers, nebulizers, or even a cotton ball soaked in oil next to your bed.

 

Safety

For the most part, aromatherapy is safe.  Unlike drugs, they are not regulated by the Federal Drug Administration. Therefore, there are no real checks and balances for the efficacy and safety of the oils.

Finding A Specialist

Holistic medicine doctors are usually experts in essential oils and can be consulted for professional advice in regard to using essential oils.

Aromatherapists are also experts in the field. The National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA).

Final Word

Hopefully, this article has given you everything you need to get started with essential oils.  If you still have any questions, let us know! We are happy to answer any questions and help any way we can.

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Bibliography & References

(1)   Rebecca Park Totilo, What is Aromatherapy? Lesson 2 of Doterra Aromatherapy Certification Course, Aroma Hut Institute.

(2)   https://www.eventbrite.com/e/why-the-egyptians-used-essential-oils-and-how-they-can-help-you-tickets-46155005865

(3).  L.P.A. Oyen and Nguyen Xuang Dung (Editors), Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) No. 19.

(4)   http://shop.aethon-international.com/product/geranium

(5)   https://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks

(6)    https://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks

(6a)  Roger Sands (Editor),  2013.  Forestry in a Global Context. 2nd ed.

(7)   Christopher Vasey, Natural Antibiotics and Antivirals – 18 Infection Fighting Herbs and Essential Oils.

(8)   https://www.ancient-origins.net/history-ancient-traditions/ayurvedic-medicine-traditional-knowledge-life-india-has-endured-passage-020647

(9)   https://www.magnoliabox.com/products/theophrastus

(10)  https://greatestgreeks.wordpress.com/2016/09/26/pedanius-dioscorides

(11)   https://www.penny-price.com.hk/product/helichrysum-essential-oil

(12)   Rebecca, Totilo, Lesson 1: History of Aromatherapy, Doterra Aromatherapy Certification Course, Aroma Hut Institute.

(13)  Rebecca, Totilo, Profile: Melaleuca “Tea Tree” Essential Oil, Essential Oils 101 Class, Aroma Hut Institute.

Andrew Chevallier, The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants, A Practical Reference Guide to Over 550 Keys Herbs & Their Medicinal Uses.

Axe, Josh, T.Y. Bollinger, Jordan Rubin, 2016, Essential Oils Ancient Medicines, Axe Wellness LLC.

Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review, Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2015; 5(8): 601 – 611.

Ben-Erik van Wyk, Michael Wink, Medicinal Plants of the World.

Christopher Vasey, Natural Antibiotics and Antivirals – 18 Infection Fighting Herbs and Essential Oils.

doTERRA e-book – Essential Oil Origin

doTerra Essential Oils Infographics

Gattefossé R-M, Tisserand RB (ed.) 1993 Gattefossé’s aromatherapy: the first book on aromatherapy. CW Daniel, Saffron Walden.

Julius Lawless, The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils, An Introduction to Aromatics.

Medical News Today  https://medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10884

Snyder, Mariza, 2019, The Essential Oils Hormone Solutions, Rodale Books, 1st Edition.

Steward, David. Healing Oils of the Bible. Marble Hill, MO: Centre for Aromatherapy Research & Education, 2002.

The Essential Life A Simple Guide to Living The Wellness Lifestyle, 2017, Total Wellness Publishing, 3rd Edition.

Zielinski, Eric, 2018. The Healing Power of Essential Oils, DrEricZ.com, LLC.

 

 

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